policy(4). Not all research is objective. Many of these individuals or corporations fund biased research in order to arrive at conclusions that will support their desired policies.
Many of these individuals play a direct role in the research process, ensuring that it cannot be entirely objective. After all, "corporate presidents, directors, and top wealth-holders also sit on the governing boards of the foundations, universities, and policy-planning groups to oversee the spending of their funds(5)." The vast majority of Americans simply lack the financial resources needed to command the same kind of influence. Democracy is weakened in the name of corporate interest, and the power that was formerly reserved for the people continues to belong to a select few.
The corporate upper class is further aided in its domination of national policy making by forming 'policy-planning groups'. According to Dye, these groups "bring together people at the top of the corporate and financial institutions, the universities, the foundations, the mass media, the powerful law firms, the top intellectuals, and influential figures in the government(6)." Their purpose is to review university or foundation supported research, and to reach a consensus about what action should be taken regarding the problems that they have studied(7). The policy-planning groups then formulate action recommendations, "explicit policies or programs designed to resolve or ameliorate national problems(8)." These recommendations are then circulated to the mass media, federal executive agencies, and Congress. In this way the policy-planning groups influence national policy by attracting public attention to their recommendations(9). Again the point of view of the masses is rarely represented. Those that make up the policy-planning groups can hardly be considered representative of the 'average citizen'.
These policy planning groups further influence national policy by preparing legislation for congress. Dye points out that "before the results of government-sponsored research are available, federal executive agencies, with the assistance of policy-planning groups, will prepare legislation for Congress to implement policy decisions. Particular versions of bills will pass between executive agencies, the White House, policy-planning groups, and the professional staffs of the congressional committees that eventually will consider the bills" (10). Not only are they influencing national policy, they are, essentially, writing it. And while this process continues unabated, democracy continues to weaken.
Domhoff, William. 534. Domhoff, William. 534. (3) Dye, Thomas 165, (1995). (4) Dye, Thomas 221, (1995). (5) Dye, Thomas 221, (1995). Dye, Thomas 222, (1995). Dye, Thomas 222, (1995). Dye, Thomas 222, (1995). Dye, Thomas 222, (1995). Dye, Thomas 222, (1995).
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